Issue 3(47), 2017

DOI 10.21440/2307-2091-2017-3-85-92

Evolutionary changes in the directions of nature management [In Russian, in English] pdf

M. S. Kubarev

This article considers the stages in the relationship between a person (society) and nature from the position of forming directions of nature management. The author proposes to distinguish five stages. For each stage, the author justifies the type (model) of economic development, the nature of person (society) and nature interaction, institutional support and direction of nature management. At the first stage (the Old Stone Age), a person’s moral attitude to nature, its deification, harmonization of relationships, the presence of only direction - resource consumption, takes place. At the second stage, a person separates himself from the natural world, the anthropogenic impact increases, certain restrictive measures for protecting fauna and flora appear, and separate facts of protection of natural resources supplement resource consumption and resource management. At the third stage, frontal economy starts functioning, the person considers himself the creator of nature, and the first environmental acts on reserving appear. The use of natural resources is complemented with the expansion of the protection of natural
resources and their renewal. At the fourth stage, the environmental model of the economy replaces the frontal economy. The human continues to conquer nature, considering it a natural resources storehouse, special management apparatus appears, law-making activities stir up, financing and performing scientific research expand widely. Among the directions of nature management are the use of natural resources, transformation, renewal (restoration), nature protection, including reserving. The fifth stage includes implementation of the transition to a model of sustainable development, the environmental and economic system becomes the object of management, and humanity becomes aware of the importance of nature, (the mechanism of biotic regulation), the need for biosphere compatibility, and the development of institutional provision. The reserving begins to play an independent role.

Keywords: stages; interaction; person (society); nature; directions of nature management.



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