УДК 550.389.1


W. R. Gaweish et al. / News of the Ural State Mining University. 2019. Issue 2(54), pp. 7-19

Relevance. The study area is located at Mandisha village, El-Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. It is suffering from lack of surface water. So it’s important to search for another source of water (as groundwater) that important for everything for live. Based on the literature studies; the main aquifer in the study area is located in the Nubian sandstone aquifer, which located directly on the upper surface of the basement rocks. So the depth of the lower surface of the Nubian sandstone aquifer is equal to the depth of the upper surface of the basement rocks in the study area.
Objectives of the study. This study is used the analysis and interpretation of magnetic data to determine the depth of the basement rocks and the structural elements that affected on the basement rocks at Mandisha area in El-Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt.
Research methodology. The Magnetic methods were applied to achieve these goals. One hundred and seventy four magnetic stations were acquired by Overhauser magnetometer instrument (GSM-19 “V7.0”). The magnetic data were processed by using Geosoft Oasis Montaj program. 2D Magnetic Profiles and 3D Magnetic Modeling were established to construct basement relief map in the study area. First Vertical Derivative Technique, Source Edge Detection Method and 3D Euler Deconvolution method were established to determine the locations and directions of faults that affected on the Basement Rocks in the study area.
Work results. The most important results of this study: 1. The depth of the basement rocks in the study area ranges from 1200 m to 2000 m. 2. The northeastern, northwestern and western parts of the study area are characterized by shallow depth of the basement rocks, while the southern and eastern parts of the study area are characterized by deep depth of the basement rocks. 3. Deep faults (more than 2000 m) were located at northern part of the study area. 4. The main direction faults in the study area are NE–SW and E-W direction.

Keywords: Magnetic Data Interpretation, 3D Euler Deconvolution, 2D Magnetic Profile, 3D Magnetic Modeling, Basement Rocks, faults, Geosoft, El-Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt.



1. Moustafa A. R., Saoudi A., Moubasher A., Mohamed I., Molokhia H., Schwartz B. 2003, Structural setting and tectonic evolution of the Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, Egypt. GeoArabia, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 91–124.
2. Egyptian Military Survey “EMS” Topographic Map of El-Bahariya Oasis. Scale 1:500000, Sheet No. NH 35 SE BAHARIYA, Western Desert, Egypt. 1986.
3. Diab M. S. 1972, Hydrogeological and Hydrochemical studies of the Nubian Sandstone water-bearing complex in some localities in United Arab Republic. PhD Thesis, Assiut University, Egypt.
4. Said R. 1962, The Geology of Egypt. Amsterdam, Netherlands, Elsevier, 377 p.
5. GEM GSM-19 Cost Effective and High Precision Overhauser Magnetometer. URL: http://www.gemsys.ca/rugged-overhauser-magnetometer
6. Geosoft Oasis Montaj Program Geosoft mapping and processing system: version 6.4.2 (HJ). Inc Suit 500, Richmound St. West Toronto, ON Canada N5SIV6, 2007.
7. Baranov V. 1957, A new method for interpretation of aeromagnetic maps: pseudo-gravimetric anomalies. Geophysics, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 259–383. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1438369
8. Baranov V., Naudy H. 1964, Numerical calculation of the formula of reduction to the magnetic pole. Geophysics, vol., no. 29, pp. 67–79. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1439334
9. Baranov V. 1975, Potential fields and their transformation in applied geophysics. Geo-exploration Monographs, no. 6. Gebruder, Borntraeger. Berlin–Stuttgart, Series 1–6.
10. Bhattacharyya B. K. 1967, Some general properties of potential field in space and frequency domains. Geoexploration, vol. 5(3), pp. 127–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7142(67)90021-X
11. Bhattacharyya B. K. 1965, Two-dimensional harmonic analysis as a tool for magnetic interpretation. Geophysics, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 829–857. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1439658
12. El-Hussaini A., Henain E. F. 1975, On the computation of second derivative from gravity data. Presented in the 9th Arab Petroleum Congress, Dubai.
13. Elkins T. A. 1951, The second derivative method of gravity interpretation. Geophysics, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 29–50. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1437648
14. Evjan H. M. 1936, The place of the vertical gradient in gravitational interpretation. Geophysics, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 127–136. https://doi. org/10.1190/1.1437067
15. Henderson R. G. 1960, A comprehensive system of automatic computer in magnetic and gravity interpretation. Geophysics, vol. 25, issue 3, pp. 569–585. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1438736
16. Henderson R. G., Ziettz L. 1949, The computation of second vertical derivative of geomagnetic fields. Geophysics, vol. 14, issue 4, pp. 517–534. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1437558
17. Rosenbach O. 1953, A contribution to the computation of second derivative from gravity data. Geophysics, vol. 18, issue 4, pp. 894–912. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1437943
18. Blakely R. J., Simpson R. W. 1986, Approximating edges of source bodies from magnetic or gravity anomalies. Geophysics, vol. 51, issue 7, pp. 1494–1498. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1442197
19. Reid A. B., Allsop J. M., Granser H., Millett A. J., Somerton I. W. 1990, Magnetic interpretation in three dimensions using Euler deconvolution. Geophysics, vol. 55, issue 1, pp. 80–91. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1442774
20. Klingele E. E., Marason L., Kahle H. G. 1991, Automatic interpretation of gravity gradiometeric data in two dimensions: vertical gradient. Geophysical Prospecting, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 407–434. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2478.1991.tb00319.x
21. Harris E., Jessell W., Barr T. 1996, Analysis of the Euler deconvolution techniques for calculating regional depth to basement in area of complex structures. SEG Annual Meeting, 10–15 November, Denver, Colorado.
22. Marson L., Klingele E. E. 1993, Advantage of using the vertical gradient of gravity for 3-D interpretation. Geophysics, vol. 58, issue 11, pp. 349–355. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1443374
23. Stavrev P. Y. 1997, Euler deconvolution using differential similarity transforms of gravity or magnetic anomalies. Geophysical Prospecting, vol. 45, issue 2, pp. 207–246. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2478.1997.00331.x
24. Barbosa V., Sliva J., Medeiros W. 1999, Stability analysis and improvement of structural index in Euler deconvolution. Geophysics, vol. 64, issue 1, pp. 48–60. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1444529
25. GMSYS Programs Gravity and Magnetic modeling, version 6.4.2 (HJ). Inc Suit 500, Richmound St. West Toronto, ON Canada N5SIV6, 2007.
26. GMSYS-3D Programs Gravity and Magnetic modeling, version 6.4.2 (HJ). Inc Suit 500, Richmound St. West Toronto, ON Canada N5SIV6, 2007.



View or download the full issue (pdf in Russian, English) 



S. V. Shimanskiy
A. Tarshan
Basement configuration depth methods of airborne magnetic data in the eastern Gulf of Suez, Egypt
(In English)
O. B. Azovskova
M. Yu. Rovnushkin
E. I. Soroka
Petrochemical features of the dike complex of the Vorontsovskoye gold-ore deposit (Northern Urals)
(In English)
 I. A. Baksheev
E. A. Vlasov
About chemistry of tourmaline from Mnogovershinnoe ore deposit (Khabarovsk Krai, Far East)
(In English)
M. P. Popov
O. P. Peleshko
E. A. Bazhenova
V. S. Ivanchenko
V. V. Bakhterev
Geophysical criteria for the separation of productive micaceous veins of the Mariinsky emerald-beryllium deposit
(the Middle Urals)
(In English)
D. K. Azhgaliev
S. M. Isenov
S. G. Karimov
New opportunities for processing and interpreting seismic data in estimating the viability of local objects
M. S. Glukhov The morphology and internal structure of natural and man-made iron oxide microspheres
G. I. Strashnenko Mechanisms and causes of changes in the shape of crystals during their growth
A. V. Alekseev
P. E. Verbilo
Numerical modeling of stability of the forehead of the face in the area of heterogeneity with undrained array model
 S. G. Panyak
S. A. Degtyarev
Asteroids, comets and meteorites – products of the explosion of the Phaethon planet



P. A. Korchagin
A. B. Letopolskiy
I. A. Teterina
Results of studies for the modernized equipment of a pipelayer
(In English)
Ab. G. Rzayev
S. R. Rasulov
Identification of the mechanism of tectonic movements of the Earth's crust
V. A. Ageenko Study of the rheological properties of salt rock
 A. M. Mazhitov
S. A. Korneev
D. V. Domozhirov
P. V. Volkov 
Substantiation of parameters of underground geotechnology for the development of dispersed ore bodies of staged occurrence
M. L. Khazin Electric trucks for underground and open pit mining
I. P. Timofeev
M. S. Stolyarova
Substantiation of parameters of friction drive units for the ore mining and dressing plant



 A. N. Ivanov
M. N. Ignat'eva
N. G. Pustokhina
Environmental impact analysis as a tool for state regulation of economic activity
(In English)
I. A. Zabelina
Yu. V. Kolotovkina
Ecological and economic development of municipalities of the Zabaykalsky Krai in the context of "green" economy
V. G. Loginov
V. V. Balashenko
Sustainable natural resource use: approaches to evaluation
E. N. Sidorova
A. V. Trynov
The role of development institutions in building up investment resources of old industrial territories



 Yu. V. Erokhin
K. S. Ivanov
Svyatoslav Nestorovich Ivanov (1911–2003) and Svyatoslavite
 V. V. Filatov Geophysics department and its variations


Kirill Svyatoslavich IVANOV


УДК 553.982.2



K. S. Ivanov / News of the Ural State Mining University. 2018. Issue 4(52), pp. 41-49

Relevance of research. The study of the origin of oil is fundamental in geology, with essential scientific and practical importance. In connection with the gradual exhaustion of deposits of small and medium depths (up to 4.5 km), the question inevitably arises of the development of deeper hydrocarbon
The purpose of the work: to estimate the depth to which it is currently possible to detect oil fields.
Methodology of the research: analysis of theoretical models of inorganic formation of oil and the deep structure of the earth’s crust with the involvement of new data from experiments and global discoveries of deposits at super depths.
Results. Based on the rheological model by S. N. Ivanov (about the structure of the continental crust), the deepest oil fields should be located immediately below the separator, that is, directly under the fluid-tight boundary, usually at a depth of 10–11 km. According to the model of oil formation by A. I. Malyshev (model of cooling horizons), the maximum depth for oil fields is 12 km. Oil deposits with a depth of 10.7 km are already known. Tests by V. S. Balitsky and others on the phase states of water-hydrocarbon fluids at high temperatures and pressures show that there may be oil deposits of at least 12 km. Now, the same depth is maximally achievable when drilling.
Conclusion. Finding oil fields is possible to a depth of 12 km. However, the concept of the inorganic oil origin does not assume the necessity and expediency of searching for its deposits in the basement of Western Siberia and Yamal, over vast areas outside the known oil-bearing regions. If there
were significant oil-bearing deep breaks there, then oil, due to its lightness, would appear in the mantle. Therefore, the primary object of exploration is deep horizons under large oil fields.

Keywords: oil fields, deep structure of the earth’s crust, fluids.




1. Balitsky V. S., Balitskaya L. V., Penteley S.V., Pironon J., Barres O. 2015, Eksperimental’noye izucheniye metamorficheskikh prevrashcheniy uglevodorodov v vodnom okruzhenii pri povyshennykh i vysokikh temperaturakh i davleniyakh (v svyazi s vyyasneniyem form i maksimal’nykh glubin nakhozhdeniya nefti v zemnykh nedrakh) [Experimental study of metamorphic transformations of hydrocarbons in the water environment at elevated and high temperatures and pressures (in connection with the clarification of the forms and maximum depths of oil in the earth interior)]. 4th Kudryavtsev Readings: Proceedings of the All-Russian conference on the deep-seated oil genesis. Moscow, pp. 1–5.
2. Vanyan L. L., Hyndman R. D. 1996, On the Origin of Electrical Conductivity in the Consolidated Crust. Fizika Zemli [Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth], no. 4, pp. 5–11. (In Russ.)
3. Varlamov A. I., Lodzhevskaya M. I. 2012, Uglevodorodnyy potentsial glubokozalegayushchikh otlozheniy osadochnogo chekhla neftegazonosnykh basseynov mira [Hydrocarbon potential of deep-seated sediments of the sedimentary mantle of the oil and gas basins] // Current state of the
theory of origin, forecasting methods and deep oil exploration technologies (1st Kudryavtsev readings): Proceedings of the All-Russian conference. Moscow, pp. 1–3. http://conference.deepoil.ru/images/stories/docs/tema/017_Varlamov-Lodgevskaya_Theses1.pdf
4. Ivanov K. S., Erokhin Yu. V. 2016, Neorganicheskaya geokhimiya nefti Severnoy Evrazii (po dannym ICP-MS) [Inorganic geochemistry of oil of the Northen Eurasia (according to ICP- MS)]. All-Russian Conference on the deep genesis of oil. 5th Kudryavtsev Readings: Proceedings of the conference (October 17–19, 2016). Moscow, pp. 1–4.
5. Ivanov K. S. 2016, How much oil should Russia produce? (open letter to the President of Russia V. V. Putin). Ural’skiy geologicheskiy zhurnal [Uralian Geological Journal], no. 6, pp. 3–10. (In Russ.)
6. Ivanov K. S., Kucherov V. G., Fedorov Yu. N. 2008, To the question of the deep origin of oil. State, trends and problems of the development of the oil and gas potential of Western Siberia (September 17–19). Tyumen, pp. 160–173.
7. Ivanov K. S., Fedorov Yu. N., Petrov L. A., Shishmakov A. B. 2010, The nature of biomarkers in oils. Doklady Akademii nauk [Doklady Earth Sciences], vol. 432, no. 1, pp. 626–630.
8. Ivanov S. N. 1970, Predel’naya glubina otkrytykh treshchin i gidrodinamicheskaya zonal’nost’ zemnoy kory [Extreme depth of open cracks and hydrodynamic zonality of the earth’s crust]. Sverdlovsk, Yearbook-1969, pp. 212–233.
9. Ivanov S. N. 1999, Impermeable zone at the border of the upper and middle parts of the crust. Fizika Zemli [Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth], no. 9, pp. 96–102. (In Russ.)
10. Ivanov S. N., Ivanov K. S. 2018, Rheological model of the structure of the earth’s crust (model of the 3rd generation). Litosfera [Lithosphere], no. 4, pp. 3–18. (In Russ.)
11. 2003, Istoriya geologicheskogo poiska (k 50-letiyu otkrytiya Zapadno-Sibirskoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii) [History of geological prospecting (to the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the West Siberian oil and gas province). Ed. by V. I. Karasev et al. Moscow, 283 p.
12. Krayushkin V. A. 2014, Nonbiogenic origin of giant gas and oil deposits in the continental slope of the World’s water. Glubinnaya neft’ [Deep oil], vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 739–751. (In Russ.)
13. Kudryavtsev N. A. 1973, Genezis nefti i gaza [Genesis of oil and gas]. Leningrad, 216 p.
14. Kucherov V. G., Bendeliani N. A., Alekseev V. A. J. Kenney. F. 2002, Synthesis of hydrocarbons from minerals at pressures up to 5 GPa. Doklady Akademii nauk [Doklady Earth Sciences], vol. 387, no. 6, pp. 789–792. (In Russ.) URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=29053767
15. Malyshev A. I. 2017, The role of cooling horizons in the genesis of hydrocarbon deposits. Doklady Akademii nauk [Doklady Earth Sciences], vol. 476, no. 4, pp. 445–447. (In Russ.) URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=30150860
16. Marakushev A. A., Pisotskii B. I., Paneyakh N. A., Gottikh R. P. 2004, Geochemical features of oil and the origin of oil fields. Doklady Akademii nauk [Doklady Earth Sciences], vol. 398, no. 6, pp. 795–799. (In Russ.) URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=13463569
17. Mendeleev D. I. 1949, Sochineniya [Writings]. Tom 10. Neft' [Vol. 10. Oil]. Moscow; Leningrad, 832 p.
18. Pavlenkova N. I. 2016, Petrofizicheskiye problemy global’noy tektoniki [Petrophysical problems of global tectonics]. Tectonophysics and topical issues of Earth sciences: The 4th tectonophysical conference at the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPE RAS) with international participation, pp. 529–537.
19. Porfiryev V. B.1987, Priroda nefti, gaza i iskopayemykh ugley [The origin of oil, gas and fossil coal]. Selectas. Vol. 2. Abiogennaya neft’ [Abiogenic oil]. Kiev, 216 p.
20. Sokol A. G., Tomilenko A. A., Bulbak, T. A., Sobolev N. V. 2017, Synthesis of hydrocarbons in the conversion of CO2 fluid by hydrogen: experimental simulation at 7.8 hPa and 1350° C. Doklady Akademii nauk [Doklady Earth Sciences], vol. 477, no. 6. pp. 699–703. (In Russ.) URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=30752880
21. Timurziev A. I. 2014, Regularities of extensive and stratigraphical distribution of oil and gas deposits of the West-Siberian oil-bearing field on the basis of ideas about their deep genesis, young age and the latest formation time. Gornyye vedomosti [Mining news], no. 5 (120), pp. 24–46. (In Russ.) URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=21577221
22. Fedorov Yu. N., Ivanov K. S., Erokhin Yu. V., Ronkin Yu. L. 2007, Inorganic geochemistry of oil in Western Siberia (the first results of the study by ICP-MS method). Doklady Akademii nauk [Doklady Earth Sciences], vol. 414, no. 3. pp. 385–388. (In Russ.) URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=9533485
23. Chekaliuk E. B., Kenney J. F. 1991, The stability of hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic conditions of the Earth. Proceedings of the American Physical Society, vol. 36(3). 347 p.
24. Cruse A. M., Seewald J. S. 2006, Geochemistry of low-molecular weight hydrocarbons in hydrothermal fluids from Middle Valley, Northern Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 70, issue 8, pp. 2073–2092. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2006.01.015
25. 2002, Gulf of Mexico Waits For A Turnaround, World Oil. March. URL: https://www.worldoil.com/magazine/2002/march-2002/features/gulf-ofmexico-waits-for-a-turnaround
26. Howard G. H., Barry P. H., Pernet-Fisher J. F., Baziotis I. P., Pokhilenko N. P., Pokhilenko L. N., Bodnar R. J., Taylor L. A., Agishev A. M. 2014, Superplume metasomatism: evidence from Siberian mantle xenoliths. Lithos, vol. 184–187, pp. 209–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2013.09.006
27. Ivanov S. N., Ivanov K. S. 1993, Hydrodynamic Zoning of the Earth’s crust and its Significance. Journal of Geodynamics. Vol. 17, issue 4. P. 155–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-3707(93)90006-R
28. Kaminsky F. V., Wirth R., Schreiber A. 2014, Carbonatitic inclusions in deep mantle diamond from Juina, Brazil: new minerals in the carbonate-halide association. The Canadian Mineralogist, vol. 51, issue 5, pp. 669–688. https://doi.org/10.3749/canmin.51.5.669
29. Kitchka A. 2004, Juvenile petroleum pathway: from fluid inclusions via tectonics and outgassing to its commercial fields. Ukrainian Geologist, no. 2 (6), pp. 37–47.
30. Kolesnikov A., Kutcherov V., Goncharov A. 2009, Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions. Nature Geoscience, vol. 2, pp. 566–570. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo591
31. Mukhina E. D., Kolesnikov A. Yu., Serovaisky A. Yu., Kucherov V. G. 2017, Experimental Modelling Of Hydrocarbon Migration Processes. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 950. 042040. URL: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/950/4/042040/pdf
32. 2009, Operators report string of Gulf of Mexico discoveries. Oil & Gas Journal, vol. 107, issue 7, p. 35.
33. Proskurowski G., Lilley M. D., Seewald J. S., Fruh-Green G. L., Olson E. J., Lupton J. E., Sylva S. P., Kelley D. S. 2008, Abiogenic hydrocarbon at Lost City hydrothermal field. Science, vol. 319, issue 5863, pp. 604–607. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1151194
34. Shirey S. B., Cartigny P., Frost D. J., Keshav S., Nestola F., Nimis P., Pearson D. G., Sobolev N. V., Walter M. J. 2013, Diamonds and the geology of mantle carbon. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol. 75, issue 1, pp. 355–421. https://doi.org/10.2138/rmg.2013.75.12
35. Sverjensky D. A., Stagno V., Fang Huang. 2014, Important role for organic carbon in subduction-zone fluids in the deep carbon cycle. Nature Geoscience, vol. 7, pp. 909–913. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2291
36. Weiss Y., Kiflawi I., Davies N., Navon O. 2014, High-density fluids and the growth of monocrystalline diamonds. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 141. 15 September, pp. 145–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2014.05.050



View or download the full issue (pdf in Russian, English) 



W. R. Gaweish
H. H. Marzouk
A. V. Petrov
I. A. Maraev

Magnetic data interpretation to determine the depth of basement rocks and structural elements of Mandisha village, El-Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt (In English)

V. S. Ponomarev
K. S. Ivanov
V. V. Khiller

Mineralogy of schists from the basement of the southwestern part of the Tazovsky peninsula of the West Siberian megabasin (Lenzitskaya oil exploration area, YNAD)
(In English)

P. B. Shiryaev
N. V. Vakhrusheva

Chemical zoning of chrome-spinel nodules and oxythermobarometry of nodular chromitites of the Engayskoe-3 occurrence in the Rai-Iz massif (Polar Urals)
(In English)

L. F. Shadrin

Ediacarian fauna in the ancient strata of the Polar Urals 

I. S. Chashchukhin

About the genetic types of dunites in folded ultramafites areas (using the Urals as an example) 

Y. V. Erokhin
A. G. Shorin
A. V. Zakharov
A. E. Chugaev
L. V. Leonova
O. L. Galakhova
Chabazite-Mg from gabbroids of the Bazhenovskiy ophiolite complex (Middle Urals) is the first find in Russia 
G. A. Ponomareva

Metals in oil of the deposits of the Orenburg region 

T. R. Akhmedov
M. A. Agaeva
S. R. Mamedova

Forecasting of the petrophysical rock properties of the target interval of sediments of the Gazanbulak field according to the 3D seismic attribute analysis in combination with GIS 

V. A. Davydov
O. I. Fedorova
S. V. Baidikov

Application of 1D–2D inversion of electromagnetic sounding in the study of ground water dam 




V. D. Kantemirov
R. S. Titov
A. M. Yakovlev
M. V. Kozlova

The main trends of development of the iron ore industry in Russia 
(In English)

A. B. Maksimov
D. I. Shishlyannikov
N. V. Chekmasov

Determination of the rational parameters of screw loaders of the Ural-20R heading-and-winning machines 

A. V. Yudin
M. K. Abdulkarimov
A. G. Popov
V. S. Shestakov

Development and methods for determining the parameters of a vibration stand with an open-end deck plate 

P. B. Gerike

About a single diagnostic criterion for detecting defects of electric machines by the parameters of vibrations 

D. V. Glazunov

Ways to reduce wear of wheelsets of carriage rolling stock 

T. G. Sereda

Development of an automated fire-fighting system for the mine of the Third Solikamsk potash-mine administration 




V. N. Podkorytov
L. A. Mochalova

Determination of the discount rate for the conditions of enterprises of the mineral resources sector: argumentative issues 
(In English)

O. A. Logvinenko
V. Y. Strovskiy

Natural resources as part of national wealth 

V. A. Galkin
A. M. Makarov
S. I. Zakharov
M. N. Poleshchuk

Method of calculating the reserve of the working time of the coal producer staff for the purpose of its development 

O. A. Lapaeva

Performance standards of workers of a mining enterprise: ground rules and methods 

 T. A. Lebedeva

Features of system monitoring of forested areas in industrial regions of the Urals 




V. I. Ermolenko
Y. A. Polenov
V. N. Ogorodnikov

V. N. Avdonin (1925–2017) and avdoninite 

A. V. Starostin

The formation of Muslim communities in the mining settlements of the Urals and Siberia in the late XIX – early XX century 



Roman Nikolaevich ZUBOV


УДК 553.982.2



R. N. Zubov / News of the Ural State Mining University. 2018. Issue 4(52), pp. 50-56 


The purpose of the work: development of a method that will allow us to determine the quantitative indicators of some colour characteristics of gem stones.
Methodology of the research: the study of the absorption spectra of gem stones, the identification of patterns and the development of mathematical tools for quantitative estimate the lightness parameter.
Results. The dependence of the lightness of a gemstone is established by the relative magnitude of light absorption in the zone of the absorption band caused by the main element-chromophore. Mathematically, the characteristic proportional to the optical density of the gemstone is determined, which can be used to quantify its lightness. The nonlinearity of the scale of this characteristic is shown in comparison with the colour groups or lightness indicators accepted in Russia and the USA. Examples are given that reveal the approaches to quantifying the colour of various gem stones with allochromatic colour.
Conclusion. Measurement of the spectral characteristics of gem stones allows us to quantify the indicators of their lightness. For the practical application of this technique, it is necessary to determine the colour standards and the subsequent graduation of the scale. The accuracy of measurements depends on several factors; the main being the sample size. To improve the accuracy of determining the lightness of large gem stones, it is necessary to increase the number of measurements.

Keywords: gemology, gem stones, spectrometer, absorption spectrum, light absorption, colour hue, lightness, chromophore.




1. Bukanov V. V. 2008, Gemstones. Encyclopedia. Saint-Petersburg, 416 p. http://gems.minsoc.ru
2. Nassau K. 1997, Color for science, Art and Technology. Vol. 1. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 490 р. https://www.elsevier.com/books/color-for-science-art-and-technology/nassau/978-0-444-89846-3
3. Darby Dyar M. Color in minerals. USA: West Chester University, 348 p. URL: http://www.minsocam.org/msa/monographs/Mngrph_03/MG003_323-348.pdf
4. Tani S., Fukunaga Y., Shimizu S., Fukunishi M., Ishil K., Tamiya K. 2012, Color standardization method and system for whole slide imaging based on spectral sensing. Analytical Cellular Pathology, vol. 35, issue 2, pp. 107–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/ACP-2011-037
5. Bacik P., Fridrichova J., Stubna J., Antal P. 2015, Application of spectroscopic methods in mineralogical and gemmological research of gem tourmalines. Acta Geologica Slovaca, vol. 7(1), pp. 1–9. URL: http://geopaleo.fns.uniba.sk/ageos/archive/2015_01/bacik_et_al_2015.pdf
6. Reddy J., Frost R., Martens W., Wain D., Kloprogge T. 2007, Spectroscopic characterization of Mn-rich tourmalines. Vibrational Spectroscopy, vol. 44, pp. 42–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2006.07.010
7. Merkel P., Breeding C. 2009, Spectral differentiation between copper and iron colorants in gem tourmalines. Gems and gemology, vol. 45, Summer, pp. 112–119. URL: https://www.stellarnet.us/wp-content/uploads/G-and-G-Article.pdf
8. Xueyang L., Ying G. 2016, Color grading of emerald green based CIE 1976 L*a*b. 2nd International Conference on Economics, Social Science, Arts, Education and Management Engineering (ESSAEME 2016). Beijing: China University of Geosciences, pp. 818–826. URL: https://download.atlantis-press.com/article/25860334.pdf
9. Konovalova A. N. 2011, Analiz tsveta turmalinov dlya dizayna yuvelirnykh izdeliy [Color analysis of tourmaline for jewelry design]. PhD thesis. Irkutsk, 155 p.
10. Vasilyev E. A. 2013, Registration of the faceted gems absorption spectra. Journal of Mining Institute, vol. 200, pp. 163–166. URL: http://pmi.spmi.ru/index.php/pmi/article/download/732/760
11. Royen J., Loots I. Automatic color grading. WTOCD, Lier, Belgium. URL: http://www.wtocd.be/nl/Projects/lumisense_auto_color.html
12. Ertl A., Kolitsch U., Dyar M., Hughes J., Rossman G., Pieczka A., Henry D., Pezzotta F., Prowatke S., Lenganer C., Korner W., Brandstatter F., Francis C., Prem M., Tillmanns E. 2012, Limitations of Fe2+ and Mn2+ site occupancy in tourmaline: Evidence from Fe2+ and Mn2+- rich tourmaline. American Mineralogist, vol. 97 (8–9), pp. 1402–1416. https://doi.org/10.2138/am.2012.4028
13. Lopatin O. N., Nikolaev A. G., Khaibullin R. I. 2012, Crystal-chemical aspects of the ionic implantation of minerals and their synthetic analogs. Zapiski RMO [Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society], Part 141, issue 1, pp. 61–70. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=17674662
14. Kropantsev S. Yu. 2000, Chromium andradite from the Novo-Karkodinskoe deposit of demantoid garnets. Izvestiya UGGU [News of the Ural State Mining University], issue 10, pp. 72–77. (In Russ.) https://iuggu.ru/download/10zip.pdf
15. Kleismantas A., Dauksyte A. 2016, The influence of Vietnam and Sri-Lanka spinel mineral chemical elements on colour. Chemija, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 45–51. URL: http://mokslozurnalai.lmaleidykla.lt/publ/0235-7216/2016/1/45%E2%80%9351.pdf
16. Kiselev R. K. 2012, The need to update the evaluation system color cut stone. Nauchnyy vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo gornogo universiteta / Gornye nauki i tehnologii [Mining Science and Тechnology], no. 9, pp. 30–37. (In Russ.) URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=17964606

Лицензия Creative Commons
All articles posted on the site are available under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Global License.